General Knowledge / Five Year Plans in India

From 1947 to 2017, the Indian economy was premised on the concept of planning. This was carried through the Five-Year Plans, developed, executed, and monitored by the Planning Commission (1951-2014) and the NITI Aayog (2015-2017). With the prime minister as the ex-officio chairman, the commission has a nominated deputy chairman, who holds the rank of a cabinet Minister. Montek Singh Ahluwalia is the last deputy chairman of the commission (resigned on 26 May 2014). The Twelfth Plan completed its term in March 2017. Prior to the Fourth Plan, the allocation of state resources was based on schematic patterns rather than a transparent and objective mechanism, which led to the adoption of the Gadgil formula in 1969. Revised versions of the formula have been used since then to determine the allocation of central assistance for state plans. The new government led by Narendra Modi, elected in 2014, has announced the dissolution of the Planning Commission, and its replacement by a think tank called the NITI Aayog (an acronym for National Institution for Transforming India).

Plans List:
S.No Plan Name Focus on
1 First Plan (1951–1956) Primary sector ( irrigation and energy (27.2%), agriculture and community development (17.4%), transport and communications (24%), industry (8.4%), social services (16.6%), rehabilitation of landless farmers (4.1%), and for other sectors and services (2.5%).)
2 Second Plan (1956–1961) Public sector and "rapid Industrialisation.
3 Third Plan (1961–1966) Agriculture, improvement in the production of wheat, but the brief Sino-Indian War of 1962 exposed weaknesses in the economy and shifted the focus towards the defence industry and the Indian Army.
4 Plan Holidays (1966–1969) On declaring "plan holidays" (from 1966–67, 1967–68, and 1968–69).
5 Fourth Plan (1969–1974) Advanced agriculture
6 Fifth Plan (1974–1978) Employment, poverty alleviation (Garibi Hatao), and justice.
7 Rolling Plan (1978–1980) Annual budget , fixed number of years, which may be 3, 4 or 5 years and perspective plan for long terms i.e. for 10, 15 or 20 years.
8 Sixth Plan (1980–1985) Economic liberalization
9 Seventh Plan (1985–1990) Productivity level of industries by upgrading of technology.
10 Annual Plans (1990–1992) Could not take off in 1990 due to the fast changing political situation at the centre and the years 1990–91 and 1991–92 were treated as Annual Plans.
11 Eighth Plan (1992–1997) Modernization of industries
12 Ninth Plan (1997–2002) Use the latent and unexplored economic potential of the country to promote economic and social growth. It offered strong support to the social spheres of the country in an effort to achieve the complete elimination of poverty.
13 Tenth Plan (2002–2007) GDP ,Reduction of poverty, employment ,literacy
14 Eleventh Plan (2007–2012) Higher education, poverty reduction),social sector, skill development, Reduction of gender inequality, Environmental sustainability, growth rate in agriculture, industry, fertility rate, clean drinking water, Increase agriculture growth
15 Twelfth Plan (2012–2017) To achieve a growth rate of 8.2%

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