General Knowledge / National Symbols of India

National Symbols of India
The Republic of India has several official national symbols including a historical document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, a memorial tower as well as several national heroes. All the symbols were picked up at various times. The design of the national flag was officially adopted by the Constituent Assemblyman just before independence, on the 22nd of July in 1947.
There are also several other symbols including the national animal, bird, flower, fruit and tree.

S.No Name Symbol Details
1 National flag Tiranga A horizontal rectangular tricolour with equally sized deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and India green at the bottom. In the center is a navy blue wheel with twenty-four spokes, known as the Ashoka Chakra. The flag is based on the Swaraj flag designed by Pingali Venkayya.
2 National emblem National Emblem of India An adaptation of Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath was adopted as the National Emblem of India on 24 January 1950, the day India became a republic. Forming an integral part of the emblem is the motto inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script: "Satyameva Jayate" (English: Truth Alone Triumphs), a quote taken from Mundaka Upanishad, the concluding part of the sacred Hindu Vedas.
3 National calendar Saka calendar Saka calendar was introduced by the Calendar Committee in 1957. Usage officially started at 1 Chaitra 1879 Saka Era, or 22 March 1957.
4 National anthem Jana Gana Mana Jana Gana Mana by Rabindranath Tagore was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on 24 January 1950.
5 National song Vande Mataram The first two verses of Vande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was adopted as the National song of India in 1950. "Vande Mataram" was sung during the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress by Rabindranath Tagore.
6 Oath of allegiance National Pledge It was written in Telugu by Pydimarri Venkata Subba Rao in 1962. Central Advisory Board on Education directed that the pledge to be sung in Schools and that this practice to be introduced by 26 January 1965.
7 National fruit Mango Mango (Mangifera indica) originated in India containing more than 100 varieties of the fruit.
8 National river Ganga Ganga is the longest river of India with the most heavily populated river basin in the world and is ttreated as a most sacred river on earth by hindus.
9 National tree Indian banyan Indian banyan (Ficus bengalensis) root themselves to form new trees and grow over large areas and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India.
10 National animal Royal Bengal tiger The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is found only in the Indian subcontinent and can be found in most regions of the country.
11 National aquatic animal Ganges river dolphin The river dolphin is a freshwater found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin and the Indus river dolphin. The Ganges river dolphin has a sturdy, yet flexible, body with large flippers and a low triangular dorsal fin. It weighs up to 150kg. The calves are chocolate brown at birth and become grayish brown in adulthood with a smooth and hairless skin. Females are larger than males. It can only survive in pure and fresh water.
12 National bird Indian peacock On February 1, 1963, The Government of India had decided to have the Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus) as the national bird of India. A bird indigenous to the subcontinent, the peacock represents the unity of vivid colours and finds references in Indian culture.
13 National currency Indian rupee Indian rupee (ISO code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India, controlled by the Reserve Bank of India ad rupee symbol is derived from the Devanagari consonant "र" (ra) and the Latin letter "R" was adopted in 2010. Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam an assistant professor at IIT Guwahati born 10 October 1978 in Kallakurichi, Tamil Nadu is the designer of the Indian rupee sign and the based on the Indian tricolour.
14 National microbe Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp. bulgaricus Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus has been announced as the National Microbe for India by Jayanthi Natarajan, India's Minister of State for Environment and Forests on October 18, 2012 during the International Conference on "Biodiversity Conservation and Education for Sustainable Development.
15 National reptile King cobra King cobra is the national reptile of India, considered a sacred animal in Indian culture and found in almost every part of the Indian subcontinent.
16 National heritage animal Indian elephant Indian elephant is the national heritage animal of India since October 22, 2010. India's Environment Ministry has declared the elephant a National Heritage Animal in order to increase protective measures for the country's nearly 29,000 elephants.
17 National vegetable Pumpkin Pumpkin or Meetha Kaddu is an integral part of Indian food
18 National flower Lotus Lotus is the National Flower of India

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