English / Parts of Sentence

Parts of a sentence
1 Subject
2 Predicate
3 Direct object
4 Indirect object
5 Object of the preposition
6 Transitive verbs and intransitive verbs
7 Linking verbs
8 Complements

Subject of a Sentence
Subject of a sentence is the person / thing doing the action / being described. It can be in the form of a noun / pronoun usually located before the predicate. It can either be a person, a place, a thing, or an idea, and can come in the form of a noun or a pronoun.

Subject=Noun, Verb= Indicate action.

Different Forms of Subjects
1. Complete Subject
It is the simple subject, the main word or words in a subject, along with any of the modifiers that describe the subject.

1. Complete subject is identified by asking yourself, who or what completed the action in the sentence.
2. When defining a complete subject to include both the simple subject and all the words that modify it.

1. The college dance program is performing tomorrow.
Who is performing tomorrow? The college dance program is performing tomorrow. The college dance program is the complete subject.
2. My friend, sandeep, is a great boxer.
Who is a great boxer? My friend, sandeep, is a great boxer. My friend, sandeep, is the complete subject.

2. Simple Subject
It refers to the noun / pronoun which is being / doing something. It doesn’t require you to include the modifiers / descriptive words.

1. He is a supreme hero saved all our lives today.

Here simple subject in this sentence = noun = “supreme hero,”

He is the doer of the action “saved”.
2. She is a very kind one.

Explanation Here simple subject in this sentence = pronoun = “she,”
She refers to the person being talked in the sentence above.'

3. Compound Subject
It refers to 2 / more subjects in a single sentence joined together by a connector.

Ramjan and New Year are my favorite holidays.
2 nouns connected by the word “and” are in the compound subject in this sentence.

1. Simple Subject= only the main noun / pronoun
2. Complete Subject= the subject itself (noun / pronoun) + other words that modify the subject
3. Compound Subject= multiple subjects includes the words that modify them.

It is a part of a sentence / clause says something about the subject and always contains a verb.
(E.g. went home in John went home).

Types of Predicate
1. Simple Predicate
It contains only the verb and a helping verb and does not contain any object or modifier.

S.No Example Explanation
1 Boy is Running. Simple Predicate = ‘Is Running’
Supporting verb = ‘is’
Verb = ‘Running’.
2 He was sleeping. Simple predicate = ‘was sleeping’
Supporting verb = ‘was’
Verb = ‘sleeping’.

2. Compound Predicate
It has 2 verbs shared by the same object. The verbs are combined by a conjunction and make the sentence more declarative and expressive.

S.No Example Explanation
1 The people were dancing and laughing their teams. Subject sentence = ‘The people’
2 verbs = dancing, laughing, performed by same subject.
Compound Predicate = ‘were dancing and laughing their teams’.
2 He was sleeping. He fell into a well and his leg fractured.
Subject =‘He’
2 verbs =fell and fractured
Compound Predicate =‘fell into a well and his leg fractured’.

3. Complete Predicate It of a sentence is everything except the subject. It has verb, object, adjective, adverb, conjunctions and modifier etc.

S.No Example Explanation
1 The professor was requested to see his students perform well. Sentence Subject = ‘The professor.
2 verbs= requested and perform’
2 adverbs = very and well
Complete Predicate of subject = ‘was requested to see his students perform well’.

Object in a sentence is a entity that acts upon by the subject.

Types of Objects
a. Direct Object.
b. Indirect Object.

Direct Object
It usually a noun / pronoun which receives the action of the sentence

I.e. The subject of the sentence does something directly to the direct object.

a. Charles Babbage invented the Computer.
b. The boy threw the rock.

Indirect Object
It receives / responds by the action performed by the subject.

It receives / is affected by the direct object. It always needs a
direct object with it. It always comes before the direct object.

a. Prasad built sandeep a house.
b. I gave my girlfriend a rose.

Object of the Preposition
It the noun comes after the preposition is called the object of the preposition.

1. Go with her
Object of the Preposition= with

2. Please give the pen to sandeep.
Object of the Preposition= to

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Transitive verb
It is used with an object (noun, phrase and pronoun) that refers to the person / thing that is affected by the action of the verb.

1. He admires his braveness.
2. Companies need to maintain quality of service parameters.
3. She loves animals.
Transitive verbs: admire, maintain and love 

Transitive verbs used with direct and indirect objects
  Indirect Object Direct Object
Sandeep brought her a glass of water.
She sent her a letter.

Common verbs that can take a direct and indirect object:
Give, buy, pass, make, sell, take, show, offer, leave, wish, lend, cost

Intransitive verbs
It doesn’t have an object.

In the following sentences, cry, worklaugh, and talk are intransitive verbs:

1. He was crying.
2. I work for a cinema in Hyderabad.
3. He laughed for a reason.
4. We talked for days.

Intransitive verbs: cry, worklaugh, and talk 
Common Transitive Verbs: move, starting, changed, Close, Open, stop, done, set, run,lived, washed, Write, sang  
Common Intransitive verbs:
moving, starts, changed,Close, Open, stopped, doing, setting, ran, living, washed, Write, sings

Linking Verbs
They are used to link the sentence subject to the predicate. They don’t express action.

Linking verbs: am, is, are, was, were, has been, will be , etc.

a. The Dog was friendly.
b. The bus is blue.

It's a word, clause, or phrase that's needed to complete a given expression.

Sentence Example
1 Every morning is a beautiful. Subject = “Every morning". Linking verb= “is" Complement = "a beautiful ".
2 The powder smells good. Subject=  "the powder " linking verb = "smells" complement = " good "

Types of Complements (2)
1. Subject complements.         2. Object complements.

Subject complements
It is a word / phrase that tell us more about the subject.

a. Sandeep is a Good person.
b. That’s it!

1. Subject complements Word Order: Subject + Verb + Subject Complement.
2. It may be noun phrases, pronouns, adjectives, or even prepositional phrases. It is linked to the subject by a verb.
3. Adjectives used after a group of verbs (appear, be, become, look, seem, smell, taste, etc) called a predicative adjective and it function as a complement.

a. These big nougats are delicious.
b. After long time, sandeep is ill.

Object complement
It tells us more about the direct object. It relates directly to the object and is placed after it. Verbs that can take an object complement with their direct object include make, call, and appoint. 

1. Object complements Word Order:
Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Object Complement

a. Sandeep phone call made prasad happy.
b. He called me a fool.

13. Place names must be capitalized (Hyderabad).

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