English / Singular And Plural Nouns

Singular can be made into plural nouns. They are 2 types of nouns. They were

1. Regular Plurals nouns.
2. Irregular Plurals nouns.

Rules for making Regular Singular Plurals Noun to be Plural
Singular Nouns For Plurals Examples
For regular nouns Add S at the end Cat – Cats
House – Houses
Ends with s, ss, sh, ch, x, z Add es to the end Bus – Buses
Tax – Taxes
Ends with s Add s with the es Gas –Gasses
Ends with z Add z with the es Fez – Fezzes
Ends with fe f is replaced with ve and add s at last or Wife – Wives
Wolf – Wolves
Ends with f Add s at the last. Roof – Roofs
Chief – Chiefs
Ends with y Add ies at the end City – Cities
Puppy – Puppies
Ends with y Add s at the end Ray – Rays
Boy – Boys
Ends with o Add es / os at the end Potato – Potatoes
Tomato – Tomatoes
Photo – Photos
Piano – Pianos
Ends with us Us replaced with I in the ending Cactus – Cacti
Focus – Foci
Ends with is Is replaced with es in the ending Ellipsis – Ellipses
Analysis – Analyses
Ends with on on replaced with a in the ending Criterion – Criteria
Phenomenon – Phenomena
Some nouns don’t change at all when pluralized. Series – Series
Sheep – Sheep

Rules for making Irregular Singular Plurals Noun to be Plural
They don’t follow any rules. So we have to memorize the words.

Singular Noun Plural Noun
Child Children
Foot Feet
Goose Geese
Man Men
Mouse Mice
Person People
Tooth Teeth
Woman Women

Singular Plural
addendum addenda or addendums
aircraft aircraft
alumna alumnae
alumnus alumni
amoeba amoebas
analysis analyses
antenna antennae or antennas
antithesis antitheses
apex apices or apexes
appendix appendices or appendixes
auto autos
automaton automata
axis axes
baby babies
bacillus bacilli
bacterium bacteria
barracks barracks
basis bases
beau beaux or beaus
bird birds
bison bison
boat boats
book books
box boxes
boy boys
buffalo Buffalos / buffaloes
bureau bureaux / bureaus
bus buses
cactus cacti / cactus / cactuses
car cars
cargo cargos/cargoes
cat cats
cervix cervixes
château châteaux / châteaus
child children
city cities
codex codices
concerto concerti / concertos
corpus corpora
crisis crises
criterion criteria or criterions
curriculum curricula or curriculums
daisy daisies
datum data
deer deer or deers
diagnosis diagnoses
die dice or dies
dwarf dwarves or dwarfs
echo echoes
elf elves
ellipsis ellipses
embargo embargoes
emphasis emphases
erratum errata
faux pas faux pas
fez fezzes or fezes
fish fish or fishes
focus foci or focuses
foot feet or foot
formula formulae or formulas
fox foxes
fungus fungi or funguses
genus genera or genuses
goose geese
graffito graffiti
grouse grouse or grouses
guy guys
half halves
halo halos/haloes
hero heroes
holiday holidays
hoof hooves or hoofs
house houses
hypothesis hypotheses
index indices or indexes
kangaroo kangaroos
key keys
kilo kilos
kiss kisses
knife knives
lady ladies
larva larvae or larvas
leaf leaves
libretto libretti or librettos
life lives
loaf loaves
locus loci
lorry lorries
louse lice
man men
match matches
matrix matrices or matrixes
medium media or mediums
memo memos
memorandum memoranda or memorandums
minutia minutiae
moose moose
mosquito mosquitos/mosquitoes
motto mottos/mottoes
mouse mice
nanny nannies
nebula nebulae or nebulas
neurosis neuroses
no nos/noes
nucleus nuclei or nucleuses
oasis oases
octopus octopuses
offspring offspring or offsprings
opus opera or opuses
ovum ova
ox oxen or ox
parenthesis parentheses
party parties
pencil pencils
penny pennies
person people
phenomenon phenomena or phenomenons
photo photos
phylum phyla
piano pianos
pimento pimentos
pitch pitches
potato potatoes
pro pros
quiz quizzes
radius radii or radiuses
referendum referenda or referendums
river rivers
salmon salmon or salmons
scarf scarves or scarfs
schoolchild Schoolchildren
self selves
series series
sheep sheep
shrimp shrimp or shrimps
snake snakes
solo solos
soprano sopranos
species species
spy spies
stimulus stimuli
story stories
stratum strata
studio studios
swine swine
syllabus syllabi or syllabuses
symposium symposia or symposiums
synopsis synopses
tableau tableaux or tableaus
thesis theses
thief thieves
tomato tomatoes
tooth teeth
tornado tornados/tornadoes
torpedo torpedoes
trout trout or trouts
tuna tuna or tunas
vertebra vertebrae or vertebras
vertex vertices or vertexes
veto vetoes
video videos
vita vitae
volcano volcanos/volcanoes
vortex vortices or vortexes
wharf wharves or wharfs
wife wives
window windows
wish wishes
wolf wolves
woman women
workman workmen
zero zeros/zeroes
zoo zoos

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