General Knowledge / Transport Systems In India

Transport / Transportation
It is used to carry people / animals / goods from one place to another by means of a vehicle, aircraft /ship.

Modes of transport in India
1. Land (Rail & Road).
2. Water (Inland waterways, Oceanic waterways).
3. Air.
4. Cable.
5. Pipeline and space.

Rail operations in India are handled by Indian Railways (IR), a state-owned organization of the Ministry of Railways.

Based on distance between the Railways Lines, there are 3 systems operating in the Country.

1. Broad Gauge – Distance 1.67m
2. Meter Gauge – Distance 1.00m
3. Narrow Gauge – Distance 0.762 or 0.610 m
It manages the fourth largest railway network in the world by size, with a route length of 67,368-kilometre (41,861 mi) and total track length of 121,407-kilometre (75,439 mi) as of March 2017. Routes are electrified with 25 kV AC electric traction while thirty three percent of them are double or multi-tracked.

S.No Railway Zone Zone Headquarters Passenger Carried (million)
1 Central Railway Mumbai CSMT 1,675
2 Northern Railway Delhi 685
3 North Eastern Railway Gorakhpur 250
4 Northeast Frontier Railway Guwahati 88
5 Eastern Railway Kolkata 1,173
6 South Eastern Railway Kolkata 263
7 South Central Railway Secunderabad (Hyderabad) 378
8 Southern Railway Chennai 406
9 Western Railway Mumbai 1,654
10 South Western Railway Hubballi 181
11 North Western Railway Jaipur 157
12 West Central Railway Jabalpur 138
13 North Central Railway Allahabad 182
14 South East Central Railway Bilaspur 126
15 East Coast Railway Bhubaneswar 86
16 East Central Railway Hajipur 222
17 South Coast Railway Visakhapatnam

India has a road network of over 5,903,293 kilometers (3,668,136 mi) as of 31 January 2019, the second largest road network in the world.

Growth of Road Network by Categories (in kilometers)

S. No Road Category in India Authority responsible 2015-16
1 National Highways Ministry of Road Transport and Highways 101011
2 State Highways Public Works Department of State/Union Territory 176166
3 District Roads Public Works Department of State/Union Territory 561940
4 Rural Roads Panchayats, JRY and PMGSY 3935337
5 Urban Roads Local governments and municipalities 509730
6 Project Roads Various State/Union territory government departments, and SAIL, NMDC and BRO 319109
7 Total 5,603,293
Above table indicate percent to total road length.

National Highways in India, by state and union territories and maintaining agency

S. No State / Union Territory National Highway Length (km)
1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 331
2 Andhra Pradesh 6,286
3 Arunachal Pradesh 2,537
4 Assam 3,845
5 Bihar 4,839
6 Chandigarh 15
7 Chhattisgarh 3,232
8 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 31
9 Daman and Diu 22
10 Delhi 79
11 Goa 262
12 Gujarat 5,017
13 Haryana 2,641
14 Himachal Pradesh 2,643
15 Jammu & Kashmir 2,601
16 Jharkhand 2,661
17 Karnataka 6,761
18 Kerala 1,782
19 Lakshadweep 0
20 Madhya Pradesh 7,884
21 Maharashtra 15,437
22 Manipur 1,746
23 Meghalaya 1,204
24 Mizoram 1422.5
25 Nagaland 1,547
26 Odisha 4,837
27 Puducherry 64
28 Punjab 2,769
29 Rajasthan 7,906
30 Sikkim 463
31 Tamil Nadu 5,381
32 Tripura 3,786
33 Telangana 854
33 Uttarakhand 2,842
34 Uttar Pradesh 8,711
35 West Bengal 2,998

Water transport ways
Water transport is of 2 types.
1. Inland waterways.
2. Oceanic waterways.

Inland Waterways
It is a network in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks that can be used for transportation in place of or in addition to roads and rails.

The total navigable length is 14,500 km (9,000 mi), out of which about 5,200 km (3,200 mi) of the river and 4,000 km (2,500 mi) of canals can be used by mechanised crafts. Cargo transport in an organised manner is confined to a few waterways in Goa, West Bengal, Assam and Kerala.

Inland waterways in India consist of the Ganges Bhagirathi Hooghly Rivers, the Brahmaputra, the Barak River, the rivers in Goa, the backwaters in Kerala, inland waters in Mumbai and the deltaic regions of the Godavari-Krishna rivers. About 44 million tonnes (49,000,000 short tons) of cargo is moved annually through these waterways using mechanised vessels and country boats.

Ocean transport
It is a form of waterways the goods are usually transferred from one land mass to another from the oceans and the seas. In this process the goods are usually passed through some specific routes or sea routes eg. The Mediterranean-Indian ocean sea route, The Cape of Good Hope sea route etc.

India has the largest merchant shipping fleet amongst the developing countries and rank 19th amongst the countries. It has a wide coast line of nearly 4200 miles. The transport facilities available along the vast coast line of the country through ships is called coastal shipping. The shipping policy committee recommended that Indian ships should secure 100% of her coastal trade. There has been sharp decline in coastal shipping operation. In 1961, there were 97 ships and in 1980 the number came down to 56.

Air Ports
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, and a control tower.

As of 2013, there are 45 heliports in India. India also has the world's highest helipad at the Siachen Glacier at a height of 6400 m (21,000 ft) above mean sea level.

Sea Ports
In India the Ministry of Shipping, around 95 per cent of India's trading by volume and 70 per cent by value is done through maritime transport. It is serviced by 13 major ports (12 Government-owned and one private) and 187 notified minor and intermediate ports. The total 200 non-major ports are present in the following States: Maharashtra (53), Gujarat (40), Tamil Nadu (15), Karnataka (10) and others). Government of India plans to modernise these ports and has approved a project called Sagarmala.

Cable transport
It is a broad class of transport modes that have cables. They transport passengers and goods, often in vehicles called cable cars. The cable may be driven or passive, and items may be moved by pulling, sliding, sailing, or by drives within the object being moved on cableways. The use of pulleys and balancing of loads moving up and down are common elements of cable transport. They are often used in mountainous areas where cable haulage can overcome large differences in elevation.

Oil and gas industry in India imports 82% of its oil needs and aims to bring that down to 67% by 2022 by replacing it with local exploration, renewable energy and indigenous ethanol fuel.

Length of pipelines for crude oil is 20,000 km (12,427 mi).
Length of Petroleum products pipeline is 15,000 kilometers (9,300 mi).

Space Transportation System
The Space Transportation System (STS), also known internally to NASA as the Integrated Program Plan (IPP), was a proposed system of reusable manned space vehicles envisioned in 1969 to support extended operations beyond the Apollo program. (NASA appropriated the name for its Space Shuttle Program, the only component of the proposal to survive Congressional funding approval). The purpose of the system was twofold: to reduce the cost of spaceflight by replacing the current method of launching capsules on expendable rockets with reusable spacecraft; and to support ambitious follow-on programs including permanent orbiting space stations around the Earth and Moon, and a human landing mission to Mars.

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